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Biodiversity and Ecosystems Services in Swedish Solar Farms: Current Practice and a Planning Framework for Net Gain
M. van Noord, I. Pettersson, T. Råberg, K. Morell, L.H. Björnsson, U. Zinko, S. Ghaem Sigarchian, A. Sandström
Environmental Effect, Sustainable, Solar Landscaping, Agrivoltaics, biodiversity and ecosystem services
PV Systems Engineering, Integrated/Applied PV
Subtopic: Infrastructure-integrated PV (I2PV) and Nature-inclusive PV (eco-PV); Vehicle Integrated PV (VIPV)
Event: 8th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion
Session: 4AO.8.2
985 - 991
ISBN: 3-936338-86-8
Paper DOI: 10.4229/WCPEC-82022-4AO.8.2
0,00 EUR
Document(s): paper, presentation


The Swedish solar farm market is expanding rapidly as ground-mounted solar plants are getting larger in size and number. This development inevitably leads to an increased land use change, which is the foremost cause of biodiversity loss. Along with a decrease in biodiversity, nature's supply of ecosystem services decreases, as well as chances to meet several (inter)national environmental and sustainable development goals. This study presents results of the Eco-Sun project, developing practical guidelines for the planning, construction and management of solar farms with a net zero, or net positive, impact on biodiversity and ecosystem services. It shows that biodiversity measures are present but limited in Swedish solar farms, while agrivoltaic crop cultivation is limited to one single site. In order to address environmental challenges and increase multiple land use, a step-by-step process is presented for the inclusion of biodiversity, agricultural and non-agricultural ecosystem services into the planning and design of ground-mounted solar PV.