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Reduction of ITO by a Low-Cost Sprayed TIOx Capping Layer for SHJ Solar Cells
U. Heitmann, L. Tutsch, A. De Rose, D. Dreja, L. Jakob, R. Mahmoud Algazzar, M. Bivour, J. Bartsch
Heterojunction, Spray Pyrolysis, Soldering, Antireflection Coating
Silicon Materials and Cells
Subtopic: Low Temperature Route for Si Cells
Event: 8th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion
Session: 1BO.3.3
59 - 62
ISBN: 3-936338-86-8
Paper DOI: 10.4229/WCPEC-82022-1BO.3.3
0,00 EUR
Document(s): paper


We demonstrate a spray pyrolysis process for deposition of titanium oxide (TiOx) on ITO on silicon heterojunction (SHJ) solar cells. Layer stacks of 20 nm ITO + 55 nm TiOx, 50 nm ITO + 25 nm TiOx and references with 75 nm ITO were deposited on M2+ (157 × 157 mm²) solar cells. All three layer stacks yield similar cell efficiencies of close to 21 %. Homogeneous sprayed coatings were achieved despite using a small laboratory spray coater. Single cell modules were manufactured from cells of all three groups. Only slight modifications in the soldering process were necessary, even though the screen-printed metallization is covered with TiOx for two groups. Module efficiencies are also on par for the three cell types. A slightly increased series resistance is measured on both cell and module level for the cells with 20 nm ITO layer, due to higher resistance for lateral current transport in this layer. Consumables costs of <1ct/wafer are estimated based on the laboratory process.