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Silver- and Indium-Free Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cell
A. Lachowicz, G. Christmann, A. Descoeudres, S. Nicolay, C. Ballif
Heterojunction, Copper Plating, Aluminium Zinc Oxide
Silicon Materials and Cells
Subtopic: Low Temperature Route for Si Cells
Event: 37th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition
Session: 2DV.3.8
490 - 492
ISBN: 3-936338-73-6
Paper DOI: 10.4229/EUPVSEC20202020-2DV.3.8
0,00 EUR
Document(s): paper, poster


Currently about 2000 tons of silver are consumed for 100 GW PV production per year and this are 10% of the entire world annual silver supply. Annual production volumes in the terawatt range are predicted by renowned experts already for 2030 and replacement of expensive and rare elements becomes imperative to sustain PV production on such a large scale. Replacement of silver has already been demonstrated and several process options for copper plating on heterojunction cells exist. With our plating sequense, comprising a PVD seed layer and hotmelt inkjet patterning and compatible with chemically resistant thin conductive oxides such as ITO or IWO, high efficiency of 24.7% has been achieved on industrial heterojunction cell precursors and excellent module reliability confirmed in extended aging tests. This process has been modified for cells having an aluminum zinc oxide layer. In the first cell experiment the efficiency was 0.6% lower than the screen printed reference, because of lower Jsc. This is caused by remaining minor attact on the AZO during processing and optimization of the etch-back solution is ongoing.