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Virtual Energy Rating: a Method for Optimizing Module Performance Through Cell-To-Module Analysis
A. Protti, J. Shahid, M. Mittag, D.H. Neuhaus, U. Kräling, M. Kaiser
Simulation, Energy Rating, Design, PV Module, CTM
Photovoltaic Modules and BoS Components
Subtopic: PV Module Performance – Modelling, Testing, Standards
Event: 8th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion
Session: 3BO.15.2
520 - 526
ISBN: 3-936338-86-8
Paper DOI: 10.4229/WCPEC-82022-3BO.15.2
0,00 EUR
Document(s): paper, presentation


The implementation of energy rating of photovoltaic modules based on IEC-61853 imposes challenges to developers of PV module technology. In response, we present how a simulation-based analysis methodology, adapted for non-STC conditions, can be used to obtain all information needed for determining a virtual Climate Specific Energy Rating (vCSER), namely: a power matrix, the spectral response, the angular loss, and heat transfer coefficients. A conventional full-cell module and a “butterfly” half-cell topology are used to exemplify how the proposed method can be used to identify gain and loss factors of a module design affecting the performance of each module in terms of rated energy yield per area and Climate Specific Energy Rating (CSER). Recommendations for improving the module design are ranked and discussed, based on a sensitivity analysis on eleven parameters.