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Tra.Q - Laser Marking for Single Wafer Identification - Production Experience from 100 Million Wafers
S. Wanka, D. Rychtarik, J. Müller, S. Geißler, P. Kappe, S. Thormann, M. Spallek, U. vom Bauer, C. Ludwig, P. Wawer
Wafer-based Silicon Solar Cells and Materials Technology
Subtopic: Manufacturing Issues and Processing
Event: 26th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition
Session: 2CO.16.2
1104 - 1106
ISBN: 3-936338-27-2
Paper DOI: 10.4229/26thEUPVSEC2011-2CO.16.2
0,00 EUR
Document(s): paper


Single wafer identification is a mandatory element of a modern solar cell production. It accelerates the efficiency roadmap of the solar cell and fosters the cost reduction roadmap of the fabrication. The laser marking concept Tra.Q creates an individual code on each and every wafer. This makes process optimization and quality control easier and faster. The solar cells are 100% traceable along the whole value chain. A large statistical database is available. Typically, the code for the individual tracking is engraved onto the bare wafer before the manufacturing process. Special care is taken to make the code readable at all process steps. The main benefits of the single wafer identification are faster learning in production, steeper ramp curves for the introduction of innovations, improved quality control of materials and of products from the suppliers, enhanced transparency to the customer. Laser marking has successfully completed its way from the research level to full mass production. With over 100 million solar cells fabricated, capability of mass production has been proven.