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Chemical Gradients in Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 Thin-Film Solar Cells: Results of the GRACIS Project
W. Witte, M. Powalla, D. Hariskos, A. Eicke, M. Botros, H.-W. Schock, D. Abou-Ras, R. Mainz, H. Rodríguez-Alvarez, T. Unold, G.H. Bauer, R. Brüggemann, S.J. Heise, O. Neumann, M. Meessen, J. Christen, F. Bertram, A. Klein, T. Adler, K. Albe, J. Pohl, M. Martin, R.A. De Souza, L. Nagarajan, T. Beckers, C. Boit, J. Dietrich, M. Hetterich, Z. Zhang, R. Scheer, H. Kempa, T. Orgis
Solar Cell, Inhomogeneous, CIGS, Buffer, Ga Gradient
Thin Film Solar Cells
Subtopic: CdTe, CIS and Related Ternary and Quaternary Thin Film Solar Cells
Event: 27th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition
Session: 3BO.4.1
2166 - 2173
ISBN: 3-936338-28-0
Paper DOI: 10.4229/27thEUPVSEC2012-3BO.4.1
0,00 EUR
Document(s): paper


The German joint research project “Chemical Gradients in Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2” (GRACIS) is an initiative to gain a better physical understanding concerning the formation of chemical gradients in the Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 (CIGS) absorber layers and at the CIGS/buffer interface. This article presents the current status of the GRACIS project after three years of execution with results concerning phase formation during chalcogenization and coevaporation processes, influence of Ga grading on structural and electrical parameters as well as on inhomogeneities on the μm scale of CIGS. Special features of the CIGS/Zn(O,S) buffer interface are discussed and compared to CIGS solar cells with CdS buffer. In addition, our experimental results are supported by 3D simulations and calculations using screened-exchanged hybrid density functional theory.