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Update of PV Energy Payback Times and Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions
V. Fthenakis, H.C. Kim, M. Held, M. Raugei, J. Krones
Photovoltaic (PV), Life Cycle, Nitrogen Trifluoride, EPBT, Greenhouse Gases
PV Deployment
Subtopic: Enablers for PV Development and Benefits of PV
Event: 24th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, 21-25 September 2009, Hamburg, Germany
Session: 6DO.10.5
4412 - 4416
ISBN: 3-936338-25-6
Paper DOI: 10.4229/24thEUPVSEC2009-6DO.10.5
0,00 EUR
Document(s): paper


An update of EPBT and greenhouse gas emissions from the life cycle of CdTe thin-film technology and bulk Si PV technologies (i.e., mono, multi-crystalline and ribbon) is presented. All technologies have improved substantially from the previous (2004-2006) estimates. CdTe PV production and recycling in Frankfurt-Oder, Germany has been investigated in detail. Furthermore, emission factors of NF3 in the production of the gas and its use in reactor cleaning in a-Si/tandem-Si PV facilities are investigated based on actual data from two production sites and six end-use facilities. These data show much lower NF3 emission factors than those previously reported.